HEMZE and MADD
Hemze is a harf that doesn’t exist in our language and it is just another form of an “Aleph”. It doesn’t join with other harfs, it can stand alone or it can have one of the following three harfs as its carrier: Aleph, Waw or YAA. On these harfs we can have a hemze but in that case they are not read. When there are Fatha, Kasra or Damma on the Hemze, then the Hemze acts like an Aleph, i.e. you only pronounce the mark that was on it. And when the hemze comes with a sukoon then the vocal cords tighten and the breathing is stopped for a moment. The air coming from the lungs rapidly opens the barrier and in this way it produces an explosive noise. During the pronunciation we have to make sure that the Hemze with the sukoon isn’t accented too much.
Madd (lenghth) is a mark that comes above all long vocals A, I or U, and indicates that the long vocal has to be recited twice as longer. However, there are more different lenghths and we are going to talk about them in more details in the lessons about Tajweed.